Hurricane & Emergency Preparedness
Watercolor Community Emergency Management Plan
Coastal Florida is subject to extreme forces of nature, from severe winds, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, and even wildfire. This page and the WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) focus on responses to a hurricane. While hurricanes are particularly dangerous and likely the most common threat that the community will face, the information included herein, including guidance on evacuations, may be useful in other, non-hurricane events. Planning ahead and understanding the terminology associated with emergency management may reduce the chances of personal injury or major property damages. Familiarity with the WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan will help in this process.
Emergency Management is the practice of planning for disasters and implementing processes to address disaster-specific needs. Emergency management has four phases; Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery. Mitigation includes steps taken to reduce the risk of life or property, such as installing hurricane shutters. Preparedness includes public outreach, like the WaterColor CEMP and this website, as well as developing family preparedness plans. Response, also known as Operations, is the phase that will be managed by the Community Emergency Manager (CEM), and involved all of the actions that need to be taken immediately before, during and just after a natural hazard event. Recovery is the phase associated with restoring normalcy after a disaster and includes returning to the community, insurance coordination and repairs. A separate recovery section is not included in this plan.
Any action that you can take to reduce or eliminate the risk of injury or property damage is mitigation. Residents and guests at WaterColor have the benefit of a well designed community built to the stringent Florida Building Code. Opportunities exist, however, for residents and guests to reduce their potential for loss.
One of the most direct forms of mitigation is insurance. Residents need to maintain adequate homeowner's insurance. In addition, residents will need to ensure that they have coverage for the peril of wind. Wind coverage, also known as hurricane insurance, is often separate from the basic homeowners insurance. A listing of toll free claims contact numbers and information on how to file a claim with an insurance company is included in Appendix C (linked on the Documents tab).
Flood insurance is underwritten by the federal government's National Flood Insurance program, which is coordinated through FEMA. Flood insurance can be purchased by any homeowner, regardless of whether your home is in a floodplain or not, either through an independent agent, or directly from FEMA. Anyone told that they cannot purchase flood insurance or that there is no need to purchase flood insurance should consider contacting FEMA directly. Flood losses will not be covered under homeowners or special wind coverage policies.
The most important precaution you can take to reduce damage to your home and property is to protect the areas where wind can enter. According to recent wind technology research, it's important to strengthen the exterior of your house so wind and debris do not tear large openings in it. You can do this by protecting and reinforcing these five critical areas:
- Garage doors
A great time to start securing or retrofitting your house is when you are making other improvements or adding an addition.
Physical mitigation, through structural retrofits may make sense in some cases. Approved hurricane shutters or other window, door and garage door protection may be purchased and installed, based on the rules governing such activities, as approved by the Community Association. The installation of impact resistant glass is a good way to enhance mitigation that does not require the installation of shutters prior to a storm event.
Other mitigation options include clearing pine needles from gutters of a home to reduce ignition from firebrands produced by a wildfire and constructing a "safe room" in a structure to provide a safe haven from tornadoes.
Preparedness includes public outreach activities and plans designed to educate people on what to do before, during and after a disaster including how to reduce the potential for losses during a disaster. As part of their preparedness activities, Walton County has developed a registry of individuals with special needs. In addition, the County has developed guidance documents, including the Walton County Family Preparedness Guide. The State of Florida is stressing an important aspect of disaster preparedness, specifically the development of a Family Disaster Preparedness Plan. Every resident of WaterColor as well as in-season guests should take time to develop a Family Disaster Preparedness Plan.
Special Needs Registry
The Walton County Department of Emergency Management maintains a People with Special Needs (PSN) Registry. In the event of a hurricane or other catastrophe, this department will attempt to provide special medical transportation and/or sheltering. Walton County sets up a special needs shelter when an evacuation order is issued but medical help is very limited. The special needs patient must be accompanied by someone who is fully capable of caring for their needs.
Families who have members with special needs must take extra measures to ensure their preparedness. The following are suggestions from the American Red Cross and FEMA. Families with special needs must ask themselves the following questions:
- Can we manage the needs of our family for three days with little or no outside help
- Can we meet any crisis or emergency on our own for that period of time
- Can we make decisions concerning our special needs without consultation or help for three days
- Do we have the supplies and equipment to meet our special needs for three days
If the answer is "no" to any of the previous questions, families must seriously consider evacuation from their homes in the event of a disaster. Advance preparation should include how to evacuate and where to relocate.
Information about this Registry can be obtained by calling the Walton County Emergency Response Division at 850-892-8066. To obtain the services offered under this program, the completion and submission of a Special Needs Registration Form will be required. The Special Needs Registration Form is provided in Appendix D of the plan. (linked below)
Family Disaster Preparedness Plan
Your Family Disaster Preparedness Plan should address the following items:
- Discuss the type of hazards that could affect your family. Know your home's vulnerability to storm surge, flooding and wind
- Locate a safe room or the safest areas in your home for each hurricane hazard; in certain circumstances the safest areas may not be your home but within your community
- Determine escape routes from your home and places to meet (Rally Points); including a child's school, a neighbor or a public place
- Have an out-of-state friend as a family contact, so all your family members have a single point of contact; have at least two ways of contact such as email, phone, etc.
- Make a plan now for what to do with your pets if you need to evacuate
- Post emergency telephone numbers by your phones and make sure your children know how and when to call 911
- Check your insurance coverage - flood damage is not usually covered by homeowners insurance
- Stock non-perishable emergency supplies and a Disaster Supply Kit
- Use a NOAA weather radio. Remember to replace its battery every 6 months, as you do with your smoke detectors
- Take First Aid, CPR and disaster preparedness classes
Disaster Supply Kit
As part of the plan, every family should stock a Disaster Supply Kit. Check the supplies at the beginning of hurricane season each year. If a storm does not occur, supplies can be saved for the next storm. Once the hurricane season is over, canned foods can be used or donated to a holiday food drive. Most canned foods have a shelf life of 1 to 2 years so it is a good idea to replenish early.
The Disaster Supply Kit should, at a minimum include:
- Non-electric can opener
- Cooking tools/fuel
- Paper plates/plastic utensils
- Blankets/pillows, etc.
- Clothing (seasonal/rain gear, sturdy shoes)
- First Aid Kit, medicines/prescription drugs
- Special otems
- Tools; keep a set with you during the storm
- Radio (a battery operated and NOAA weather radio)
- Extra keys
- Cash; banks and ATMs may not be open or available for extended periods
- Important documents in a waterproof container (document all valuables with videotape if possible)
- Insurance, medical records, bank account numbers, Social Security card, etc.
- Toys, books and games
- Vehicle fuel tanks filled
Families with pets should take extra precautions to manage for the care of their animals before, during and after a disaster by developing a Pet Disaster Preparedness Plan. Red Cross shelters do not accept pets because of health and safety regulations. Service animals are the only animals allowed in a Red Cross shelter.
Contact hotels and motels outside Walton County to check policies on accepting pets and restrictions on number, size and species. Ask if "no pet" policies" could be waived in an emergency. Walton County Public Information has a partial list of out of area hotels that accept pets. For more information call 850-892-8530. Individuals should ask friends or family outside the area if they could shelter your animals. Also, prepare a list of boarding facilities and veterinarians who could shelter animals in an emergency. Keep a list of all names and telephone numbers, and have a backup plan for your pet's care.
Contact your veterinarian or local humane society for information on preparing your pets for an emergency.
Before a Disaster
- Make sure that your pets are current on their vaccinations; pet shelters may require proof of vaccines
- Have a current photograph
- Keep a collar with identification on your pet and have a leash on hand to control your pet
- Have a properly-sized pet carrier for each animal; carriers should be large enough for the animal to stand and turn around
- Plan your evacuation strategy and don't forget your pet; specialized pet shelters, animal control shelters, veterinary clinics and friends and relatives out of harm's way are all potential refuges for your pet during a disaster
- Learn about the American Kennel Club (AKC) Companion Animal Recovery Program; if you plan to shelter your pet, work it into your evacuation route planning
During a Disaster
- Animals brought to a pet shelter are required to have:
- Proper identification collar and rabies tag
- Proper identification on all belongings
- A carrier or cage
- A leash
- An ample supply of food
- Water and food bowls
- Any necessary medications, specific care instructions
- Newspapers or trash bags for clean-up
- Bring pets indoor well in advance of a storm; reassure them and remain calm
- Pet shelters will be filled on first come, first served basis; call ahead and determine availability
After a Disaster
- Walk pets on a leash until they become reoriented to their home; often familiar scents and landmarks may be altered and pets could easily be confused and become lost. Also, downed power lines, reptiles brought in with high water and debris can all pose a threat for animals after a disaster
- If pets cannot be found after a disaster, contact the local animal control office to find out where lost animals can be recovered; bring along a picture of your pet if possible
- After a disaster, animals can become aggressive or defensive; monitor their behavior
- Don't forget your pet when preparing a family disaster plan
Pet Disaster Supply Kit
Just like with family members, you should prepare certain items in advance to help care for your pets. A Pet Disaster Supply Kit may include:
- A carrier or cage
- Ample supply of food and water
- Muzzle, collar and leash
- Proper identification including immunization records
- Toys and treats
The most common hazard that residents and guests of WaterColor will face is a hurricane. In order to plan for and respond to a hurricane, it is important to understand hurricane related terms and the danger that hurricanes pose.
Tropical Storms are cyclonic storms, or storms that more in a counter-clockwise rotation. A hurricane is a tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour (mph) or more. A hurricane can bring torrential rains, high winds, and storm surges, can last for more than two weeks over open waters, and can run a path across the entire length of a state's land mass.
Winds & Rain
Hurricane force winds, 74 miles per hour or more, can destroy buildings. Debris can become flying missiles in hurricanes. The 74 to 160 miles per hour winds of a hurricane can extend inland for hundreds of miles. It is extremely important to secure your home and cover your windows before the storm. Hurricanes can also generate tornadoes, adding further damage from the storm.
Hurricanes can produce widespread torrential rains of often more than 10 inches which may result in destructive floods. Flooding caused by heavy rains during the storm can cause damage and loss of life. This is also a major threat to areas well inland.
Storm surge is envelope of sea or bay water pushed by the hurricane force winds, like a tidal wave. In hurricanes, the surge inundates coastal areas when the hurricane reaches land, destroying homes and businesses in its path. The storm surge generated from a hurricane is even more dangerous than high winds. The surge can be 20 feet or more in height and 50 to 100 miles in width, and has the ability to devastate coastal communities as is comes ashore. Most hurricane related fatalities are due to storm surge.
Categorization & Hazards
Hurricanes are categorized by intensity based on a scale that runs from one to five. The scale is commonly known as the Saffir-Simpson Scale. The Saffir-Simpson hurricane intensity category system was developed in the 1970s to calculate the destructive force of hurricanes. Since damage from hurricanes comes from a combination of factors, including wind, rain, floods, storm-surge height, and tornadoes, the Saffir-Simpson scale is used to gauge a hurricane based on all these factors. It is important to remember that hurricanes of any category of strength can be potentially deadly events. Hurricanes can exceed the minimum level of winds needed to attain Category 5 status.
Sustained winds in excess of 155 miles per hour can last for hours with peak winds of over 200 miles per hour. Gulf and bay water levels could rise 25 feet or more above normal. Tornadoes are likely. Heavy rains can flood low lying areas and swell rivers over their banks. Homes, utilities, businesses, schools and roads can be seriously damaged. The storm categories and their triggering wind speeds are listed below:
Categories & Wind Speeds
|74 to 95 mph
|96 to 110 mph
|111 to 130 mph
|131 to 155 mph
|155 or more mph
A hurricane watch is issued when there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 36 hours. When a hurricane warning is issued, hurricane conditions are expected within the next 24 hours.
Response includes those actions taken to address the immediate needs associated with a disaster. For the purposes of the WaterColor CEMP, the Response section includes basic information on evacuations, sheltering, an operational plan for residents, and key contact information.
The Northwest Florida Hurricane Restudy (1997) established evacuation zones in Walton County. Evacuation zones for Walton County identify areas of the County that may be required to evacuate in the various categories of hurricanes. The Category 1 (75 to 95 mph winds) hurricane evacuation zone is generally along the Gulf Coast and Choctawhatchee Bay. Category 2 and 3 (96 to 130 mph winds) evacuation areas are all remaining areas south of Choctawatchee Bay, and the Category 4 and 5 evacuation areas include all Category 1 through 3 zones plus low lying uplands along the embankments and tributaries of Choctawatchee Bay.
The coastal areas of the WaterColor project are within the Category 1 Evacuation Area. The remainder of the project, generally north of Western Lake, is within the Category 2 to 3 Additional Evacuation Area. Guests and residents within these zones would be required to evacuate during a Category 2 hurricane or above based on final decisions by state and local authorities.
Evacuation routes should be followed for safe evacuation. It is essential that during a hurricane event, evacuation is carried out in a timely and efficient manner. Familiarize yourself with the evacuation route for the WaterColor area. Evacuations will take more time during high tourist occupancy season due to the increased population in the region.
Maps of the evacuation route network showing shelter locations, as well as maps demonstrating seasonal variations in expected traffic congestion are included in Appendix E to the plan, which can be found on the Documents tab of this page.
Based on monitored weather events, the WaterColor Community Emergency Manager (CEM) may recommend that people voluntarily self evacuate in advance of formal evacuation orders. Voluntary, pre-notification self evacuation is preferable because the evacuation routes will not be restricted. In general, evacuation from WaterColor involves reaching Interstate 10, and then taking Interstate 10 (I-10) out of the area. If self evacuating prior an official evacuation order, it may make sense to travel west once reaching State Road 20, to take State Road 81 to I-10. If ordered to evacuate, and you are going to leave the region or go to a hotel, you must leave early. Pre-determine your route when possible.
There are no public hurricane shelters south of Choctawhatchee Bay and no designated shelters within WaterColor. All residents south of the Bay are required to evacuate in a Category 2 hurricane or higher. The Northwest Florida Hurricane Evacuation Restudy indicates that Walton County has a surplus of emergency shelter spaces. In total 5,620 public shelter spaces may be available during a Category 3 hurricane event. The study identified 2,527 evacuees needing local shelter within Walton County for a low-level seasonal occupancy and 3,329 evacuees for a high seasonal occupancy time frame. Behavioral studies of previous evacuations indicate that shelters are used by residents who have no alternative place to go. A large percentage of evacuees will shelter with family or friends rather than public shelters.
Since a large number of WaterColor residents are either second home owners or resort guests, a large percentage of the evacuees are anticipated to return to their main residence out of the region (estimated at 25%) or choose to stay at a motel/hotel inland (estimated at 35%). Typically, residents of the area shelter with friends or relatives (30%). Only 5% of evacuees seek public shelters, while another 5% can be expected to avoid evacuation. Based on these percentages, for planning purposes, approximately 139 WaterColor residents may need to seek public shelters during a hurricane evacuation. This assumes 100% occupancy of the project at the time of the evacuation, which is unlikely in practice.
Just as most WaterColor residents will voluntarily self evacuate prior to an official evacuation order, so too should residents and guests plan to handle their own evacuation accommodations. Most evacuees weather the storm at the home of a friend or relative living outside of the evacuation area or at a similarly located hotel or motel. Residents should plan in advance by identifying the names and telephone numbers of these individuals or of inland hotels where reservations can be made. Residents and guests must be prepared to drive 20 to 50 miles inland to locate a safe place to stay. Arrangements for pets should be thought through before hurricane season. Pets (except for registered helper animals) are not allowed in emergency shelters. Many hotels do not accept pets.
Public Hurricane Shelters in Walton County
The public hurricane shelters provided by Walton County are managed by the American Red Cross, which maintains strict guidelines for their use. If residents and visitors wish to use these public shelters, it is recommended that they do so only as a last resort. Public shelter space may be limited and should be reserved for individuals without the means to shelter elsewhere. Residents should determine which shelter is closest, should they have to go there. Shelter openings may vary with each hurricane. Residents should stay informed and up-to-date with local media broadcasts for which shelters will be open. Individuals should plan to take their emergency supplies to the shelter.
Potential hurricane shelters in Walton County include:
- Public Shelters:
- Freeport High School, located at 12615 Highway 331 S, just north of Freeport, on the right side of road
- Freeport High School will open first as a general population shelter/special needs shelter until the generator is installed at the Walton Middle School Building 900
- Okaloosa-Walton Community College, Chautauqua Center, Building 2, located at 908 U.S. Highway 90 W, DeFuniak Springs
- Freeport High School, located at 12615 Highway 331 S, just north of Freeport, on the right side of road
- Special Needs Shelter(Special Needs Only):
- Walton Middle School, located at 625 Park Avenue, DeFuniak Springs
- Shelter of Last Resort (will be isolated when winds reach 40 miles per hour):
- South Walton High School, located at 24926 U.S. Highway 331 S, Santa Rosa Beach
Residential Disaster Response Plan
The WaterColor Community Association BOD and the Community Emergency Manager may take steps during the period leading up to a disaster to track the activities of hurricanes or other natural hazards and make community wide recommendations. These recommendations will be posted on this website. In the absence of updates, it is imperative that residents and guests take personal responsibility to monitor events. In addition, residents and guests are expected to follow the Residential Disaster Response Plan (RDRP). The RDRP is phased based on four pre-event hurricane advisories, which are easy to track via the media (radio and TV), the Internet (this website, or the websites of the National Weather Service and related agencies), or by direct information provided by the Community Emergency Manager.
Phase I: Hurricane Caution Warning
Definition: When there is a threat of a tropical storm south of Cuba, in the Atlantic, threatening to cross Florida or threatening to cross the Gulf within 36 hours.
- WaterColor EOC remains at a Code Green.
- Residents should remain aware of storm activity through casual monitoring via print media, TV, radio and the Internet.
Phase II: Hurricane Caution Watch
Definition: When a hurricane passes into or develops within the Gulf of Mexico, described by 23 degrees North Latitude and 80 degrees West Longitude.
- WaterColor EOC will move to a Code Yellow
- WaterColor will activate the Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
- WaterColor staff will place a caution notice on the webpage
- Residents and guests should closely monitor the storms progress
- Residents should review their Family Disaster Preparedness Plans and check to ensure that they have necessary and sufficient supplies
Phase III: Hurricane Watch
Definition: A hurricane watch is issued when there is a threat of hurricane conditions within 36 hours.
- WaterColor EOC will move to a Code Orange
- Residents should prepare for a hurricane, and:
- Listen to radio or television for hurricane progress reports
- Check emergency supplies. Obtain any needed items
- Refill prescriptions; maintain at least a two-week supply
- Get cash; banks and ATMs will not be in operation without electricity
- Fill car fuel tanks, check oil, water and tires; many gas station pumps will not function without electricity
- Clear yard of any potential flying debris
- Bring in outdoor objects (lawn furniture, toys, trash cans, etc.)
- Anchor objects that cannot be brought inside
- Remove outside antennas
- Close and board up windows and glass doors; brace double entry and garage doors at the top and bottom
- Turn refrigerator and freezer to coldest settings, and pen only when necessary, then close quickly
- Store drinking water in clean jugs, bottles, and cooking utensils; it may be a good idea to freeze the water
- Fill bathtub with water for sanitary use such as flushing toilets
- Review evacuation plan
- Secure boat or move to a safe place early; secure boat to trailer, use tie-downs to anchor trailer to the ground or house
- Leave swimming pool filled and super-chlorinated; cover the filtration system
Phase IV: Hurricane Warning
Definition: A hurricane watch is issued when hurricane conditions are expected within 24 hours or less. Stay tuned to emergency broadcasts for evacuation orders that may be given. If you are ordered to evacuate consider the following:
- WaterColor EOC will move to a Code Red
- WaterColor recommends evacuation when a hurricane warning advisory issued by the National Weather Service is conveyed by Walton County Emergency Management
- Plan to leave as soon as possible and avoid flooded roads and watch for washed-out bridges
- Secure your home by unplugging appliances, and turning off electricity, gas and the main water valve
- Lock windows and doors
- Tell someone outside of the storm area where you are going
- Take emergency supplies and warm/dry/waterproof protective clothing
- Take blankets and sleeping bags if going to a shelter
- Take important papers with you, including:
- Drivers license
- Medical information
- Proof of Ownership of house
- Insurance policies
- Listing of important contact numbers
- Pictorial and listed inventory of property
- If time permits, wrap electrical appliances such as computers in plastic. Elevate furniture and valuables to protect them from flooding. Move them to a higher floor if possible.
During a Category 1 hurricane warning, if the zone you live in is not required to evacuate, the following precautions should be noted:
- Review your family communication plan:
- Your family may not be together or may be separated during the emergency so review how to contact each other
- Consider a plan where each person in the family contacts or emails the same friend or family member and keep in mind it may be easier to make a long distance call than a local call
- Listen constantly to a radio or television for official instructions
- Store valuables and personal papers in a waterproof container on the highest level of your home. These may include:
- Drivers license
- Medical information
- Proof of Ownership of house
- Insurance policies
- Listing of important contact numbers
- Pictorial and listed inventory of property
- Avoid elevators
- Stay inside, away from windows, skylights and glass doors
- Find a safe room in your home, an interior, reinforced room, closet or bathroom, on the lower floor
- Keep a supply of flashlights and extra batteries handy; avoid open flames, such as candles and kerosene lamps as a source of light
- If power is lost, turn off major appliances to reduce power surge when electricity is restored
- If flooding threatens your home, turn off electricity at the main breaker
- Store drinking water in jugs, bottles, and cooking utensils
- Fill bathtubs with water to be used for flushing toilets and sanitation in the home
- Wait for official word that danger is over
Phase V: Landfall
Completing preparations before hurricane season, including the development of a Family Disaster Preparedness Plan, is the most prudent approach to dealing with the threat of an emergency. When a storm strike is imminent, it is a poor time to begin emergency preparations. If you are prepared and informed, you will be better prepared to cope with unforeseen issues. However, if you are required to remain on-site during a storm event, key actions can be taken to help to reduce the potential for exacerbating property damage, sustaining grave injury, or death.
- Pull electrical plugs if there is a danger of flooding
- If you remain in the home, avoid windows and doors
- Keep a clear head. Remain alert in life threatening situations; try not to be influenced by drugs or alcohol
- Do not go outside until the advisories are issued that the storm has passed; do not be fooled by the temporary "calm" that occurs when the eye passes directly overhead
- Have an "old" type of phone that does not require electricity; the new phones require electricity
- Be extremely cautious about an open flame or the hazard of fire; water pressure may be low and the area may be inaccessible by Fire and Rescue
- Limit the use of telephone service to emergencies only
- Remember, even in a minor storm tap water may not be safe; use the emergency supplies or boiled water set aside until you know it is safe to consume it
- Barbecue grills should not be used within 10 feet of a building due to risk of fire and carbon monoxide
- Your refrigerator will remain cool even though the power is out; freezers can keep food fresh for several days if not opened
- If the water supply is disrupted, remember a toilet may be flushed by pouring a bucket of water into the bowl (not the tank); use the water being stored in the tub for these purposes
- Dry out homes using fans as soon as possible after the storm passes to avoid mildew and keep some bleach on hand for preventative and removal of mildew
- If using a generator, the directions should be followed carefully:
- Do not run the generator in an enclosed space or under an eve
- Please be sure to exhaust the carbon monoxide properly
Key Contact Information
Residents should maintain a list of key contacts that will help support efforts to evacuate and recover from a disaster. In addition to key contacts, residents should be aware of local television and radio stations. In the event of a power loss, battery operated radios may be the best source of up-to-date information. A list of key phone number and the TV and radio station call numbers is included on this page. A more comprehensive telephone list of community contacts in included in Appendix F, which can be found on the Documents tab of this page.
Important Contact Information
- Emergency: 911
- FEMA: 800-621-3362 (800-621-FEMA)
- Fire Department: 850-267-1298
- National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP): 877-336-2627
- Red Cross: 850-432-7601
- Special Needs Registry: 850-892-8066
- Walton County Emergency Management: 850-892-8065
- Walton County Sheriff: 850-267-2000
Local Emergency Broadcast
Local emergency broadcast information is provided on the following frequencies (AM and FM) and channels:
- WGTX 1280 AM
- WKGC 90.7 FM
- WSBZ 106.3 FM
- WZEP 1460 AM
- WJHG (NBC) Channel 7
- WMBB (ABC) Channel 13
- WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan - Appendix C (PDF)
- WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan - Appendix D (PDF)
- WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan - Appendix E (PDF)
- WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan - Appendix F (PDF)
- WaterColor Community Emergency Management Plan - Appendix G (Definitions and Terminology) (PDF)